Some facts about diabetes:
Diabetic mellitus is characterised by increased levels of blood sugar due to body’s Inability to use & store sugar. Diabetes if uncontrolled can cause problem like blindness, Heart disease, kidney failure and amputations. But by taking good care of yourself Though diet. Exercise and special medication diabetes ant its complication can be Controlled.
The increased incidence of diabetes has been attributed to change in lifestyle caused By increased urbanisation, high calorie diet, decreased physical activity & strain. Another Startling fact is that diabetes is now striking at an early age among the urban population Family history of diabetes puts an individual at higher risk of developing diabetes.
Diabetic eye disease includes eye problems that may cause severe vision loss or even Blindness like diabetic retinopathy, cataract or glaucoma (increase in fluid pressure Inside the eye that lead to optic nerve damage & loss of vision.)
DIABETIC RETIONPATHY: It is caused by damage to the blood vessels in the retina. These vessels become fragile & get blocked, leading to water collection (Edema). Lipid deposition, retinal hemorrhages (bleeding) & formation of new blood vessels on the retina. Vision loss can occur due to water & lipid accumulation in the center of retina (diabetic maculopathy) or due to bleeding inside the eye from new blood vessels (vitreous hemorrhages ) or due to membrane formation over the retina which pulls on the retain (tractional retinal detachment)
Often there are no symptoms in the early stage of the disease. Vision may not change until the disease become severe nor is there again pain. Gradual blurring of vision may occur if fluid leaks in the central part of the retina (the macula) bleeding in the eye can lead to black spots or floaters or total blockage of vision suddenly persons with advanced disease may find it difficult to recognise face from a distance, read fine newsprint, be intolerant to bright light.
Anyone with diabetes for more than 10-20 years. The longer someone has diabetes, the more likely he or she will get diabetic retinopathy. Nearly 50% of all people hypertension, cardiac & renal disease & pregnancy accelerate the retinopathy changes.
Complete eye examination by dilating the pupils is important for the diagnosis. If significant changes are found, a special test called fluorescein angiography or OCT may be require to